The hottest 40 years of reform and opening up -- f

2022-08-07
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In the 40 years of reform and opening up, from zero breakthrough to jiudui Xiangrong Hangzhou Bay Qinshan nuclear power embracing a broader world in March, 1974, magnolias competed on Chang'an Street, and the westernmost Jingxi Hotel welcomed several dusty Shanghai guests. They had no time to look around, and their briefcases and suitcases were closely watched by them. In the afternoon of March 31, they came to the Xinjiang Hall of the Great Hall of the people. Here, they produced a large number of design drawings and a pressurized water reactor model made of plexiglass

the group included pengshilu, the first chief designer of China's nuclear submarine, and ouyangyu, the chief designer of the first nuclear power plant in Chinese Mainland. They reported to Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Yejianying, Li Xiannian, Gu Mu and other central leaders

The construction scheme and design specification of the

300000 kW PWR were approved at the meeting, and named after the day when Zhou Enlai first proposed to build the nuclear power plant - February 8th, 1970, as "728 project"

the magnificent painting was officially launched

although it was approved, the road after that was by no means smooth. After the reactor type was determined, the debate over whether to build or not was repeated. The start of nuclear power in China is accompanied by the spring breeze of reform and opening up. However, compared with the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, which was introduced at the same time, whether the "728 project" of "self-reliance" is necessary has raised questions and disputes, and even faced the possibility of dismounting

the news of "up and down" of the project worried the scientific researchers. Liujiayu, the design director of the steam generator, set a principle for himself: "as long as he did not see the official document of the central government announcing the termination of the project, he has no right to put down his ruler."

since the beginning of this year, the ZTE embargo has stung the Chinese people and triggered heated discussions on the basic strength of national science and technology from all walks of life. p>

fortunately, in the nuclear power field, the direction and decision of mastering technology and cultivating talents through self construction practice were not abandoned. The significance of Qinshan Phase I lies in opening the way for the construction and operation of China's nuclear power. On August 19, 1982, the "728 project" was officially launched, and it was officially named Qinshan nuclear power plant in the same year

in the early 1980s, the nuclear industry from nuclear bases in the northwest and southwest began to gather in Qinshan. They come from the 404 plant, 821 plant, 202 plant, 812 plant, 504 plant, the first institute, the ninth Institute and other units of the second machinery department. The nuclear industry 23 company undertakes the installation of the nuclear island, the 22 company undertakes the civil construction, and the 5 company and the 27 company also participate in the construction

more than 100 scientific research institutions, 7 design institutions, 11 construction units, and 585 manufacturing plants in the country are under the unified jurisdiction of the Ministry of machinery and technology of the people's Republic of China, launching an attack in the revitalization of national nuclear power. The grand chapter of the second start-up of China's nuclear industry was opened, and the magnificent picture of "nine piles around Qinshan mountain" was unfolded

"I will bear the burden of this history"

at the foot of Qinshan mountain, there was a desolate sea beach. In summer, it is as hot as a steamer. Mosquitoes and insects bite badly. In winter, the cold wind blows through. The dip pen for office use is frozen in the ink bottle. Grey on sunny days, mud on rainy days. The preliminary work of "three supplies and one leveling" after the shooting of the mountain in 1983 completed the mining and handling of 1.2 million cubic meters of earth and stone while moving, settling down and constructing. Nuclear industry builders coming from the Gobi desert and other places have been prepared for all this

the conditions of designers are also bad. Lihuizhu, who once taught at the Beijing Institute of Aeronautics, gave birth to a child soon after she arrived in Shanghai. Three generations of children live in a ten square meter cabin. The space is too small and there are a lot of books. The vegetables we bought had to be put between stacks of books. Due to long-term fatigue and malnutrition, lihuizhu died of illness in 1983. Lihuizhu is one of the intellectuals who designed the first nuclear power plant in Chinese Mainland, and they are not as good as the rest of them. All the technical drawings of Qinshan nuclear power plant are designed and drawn by the Chinese people, with a length of 1 kilometer

the harsh environment does not affect the pursuit of quality by people in the nuclear industry. Xujinkang, a senior engineer, found a welding defect at the construction site and asked someone to rework it. The welder said, "this defect has been said to be acceptable by the leaders." Xujinkang blew up: "what? Acceptable? You can check the international literature. The international literature is based, I take it; if it is not based, it has to be reworked!"

the success or failure of Qinshan nuclear power plant is related to the historical destiny of China's nuclear power. Zhao Hong, then Vice Minister of the Ministry of nuclear industry and general manager of Qinshan nuclear power company, was full of confidence in the quality of the project he was familiar with and said: "if the nuclear power plant can not operate safely for 30 years, I will bear the burden of this history."

several decades later, after nearly 30 years of safe and stable operation, Qinshan No. 1 power plant will face the renewal of its nuclear power license. Changsha songgan, the current Qinshan No. 1 power plant, said: "our predecessors have planted trees and our descendants enjoy the cool. We are considering the long term. From equipment selection, design to commissioning, we will ask, can it guarantee the next 20 years?"

from zero to one, achieving a breakthrough

in 1987, 40 operators, led by yuzhuoping, who graduated from the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University, went to the full-scale PWR simulator of tecnatom training center in Spain for internship and training. After 9 weeks, they all passed the examination, and then transferred to the nuclear power plant in kirsko, Yugoslavia to study in the main control room

at the same time, some people were sent to Japan and France for training. Although they have been learning the language for several months, they still have some difficulties in professional communication at the beginning. Shi Jianxin, the current assistant general manager of Qinshan nuclear power plant, recalled the complaints made by the French at that time: "I can't imagine how you can control the nuclear power plant!" The students have made many notes, and have been able to solve some problems independently after being used in the static load zigzag, cross grain tensile and compression splitting experiments of wood. When the system was debugged, French experts came to the scene and found that these "students" did a good job

during the preparation period for project commissioning, several technicians worked hard to compile the commissioning outline of the first nuclear power plant in mainland China only based on the notes recorded during their study abroad, and thus achieved six "first-time successes": one-time success in the primary circuit hydrostatic test, one-time success in the non nuclear steam impulse turbine, one-time success in the containment strength and tightness test, and one-time success in the first nuclear fuel loading, The first critical test is successful once, and the first parallel power generation test is successful once

on December 15, 1991, Wang Riqing, the chief shift controller on duty, pressed the button, and the nuclear power and electric power meters showed 20% and 5% respectively. The 300000 kW nuclear power unit of Qinshan Phase I successfully generated electricity. In the cheering and boiling of the main control room, the nuclear power in Chinese Mainland achieved a breakthrough from scratch and from zero to one

and power generation does not mean once and for all. As a newborn child, "growth is his strength"

in the pursuit of safe and stable operation, Qinshan nuclear power keeps walking. The training of safety culture and technological transformation and upgrading have achieved remarkable results. In 2007, Qinshan Phase I achieved 469 days of continuous operation. In 2014, it set a record of 18.12 days for the shortest duration of nuclear power major repair. The ranking of WANO comprehensive index of units also rose year by year. In 2017, it scored 100 points, ranking first in the world. At the same time, Qinshan Phase II units 1, 2 and 3 also scored 100 points. So far, Qinshan nuclear power base has ranked first in the WANO comprehensive index for a total of 9 times

in the mighty wave of reform and opening up, Qinshan nuclear power has approached the central stage of nuclear power in the world and proved itself to the world

from one to two is by no means a copy

while Qinshan Phase I continued to improve safety management and operation level, the construction of two units of Qinshan Phase II project started successively in 1996 and 1997. Despite the experience of phase I project and Daya Bay nuclear power plant, phase II is far from plain sailing. Those who have participated in the construction of phase II project have experience: the day when the project starts is the day when the difficulties come one after another

firstly, the drawing design lags behind. According to the international practice of taking the reliability index of high-grade products, the drawing design should be completed by more than 50% when the first tank of concrete is formally poured, while the civil construction drawing of Qinshan nuclear power phase II project is only completed by 6%. In 1998, the construction unit waited for the drawings almost every day, and the construction site was deserted. At the same time, as the state has not determined the investment budget for the phase II project, the funds cannot be in place

in November, 1999, the pressure vessel of unit 2, which had reached the delivery date, had serious quality problems, resulting in rework and 25 months' delay in the construction period, which had a serious impact on the project progress and brought huge economic losses. In the end, China will become the fifth country in the world that can independently manufacture pressure vessels for nuclear power plants

the second phase project, which was equivalent to "the sum of difficulties encountered by all nuclear power plants in China at that time", finally solved the difficulties one by one. On February 6, 2002, unit 1 was put into operation for the first time 23 days in advance, and commercial operation was realized on April 15. In 2004, unit 2 was also put into commercial operation. In that year, Zhao Hong was 72 years old and returned to Beijing as the chairman of Qinshan nuclear power joint venture Co., Ltd

the cost per kilowatt of Qinshan Phase II project is far lower than the cost of building nuclear power plants at home and abroad in the same period. The equipment localization rate is 55%, and 47 of the 55 key equipment are domestically manufactured. The overall performance of the power station has reached the advanced level of similar international nuclear power stations in the 1990s

breaking through zero is not easy, and one to two is not a simple copy. If the Qinshan Phase I 300000 kW nuclear power project has solved the problem of no nuclear power in Chinese Mainland, the Qinshan Phase II 600000 kW nuclear power project has achieved a major leap forward in China's independent construction of large-scale commercial nuclear power plants

go out and build Qinshan's "10th unit"

"two in one life, two in three". A qualitative leap has quietly taken place in the accumulation of quantitative changes. On the basis of the successful experience of independently building nuclear power plants, the Chinese people have more confidence in dealing with foreigners. In the construction of two 700000 kW heavy water reactor nuclear power units in Qinshan Phase III, 99 design improvements were organized and implemented with Chinese technical force as the main force, of which 21 were first adopted by the nuclear power unit of heavy water reactor. Meanwhile, in order to ensure the project quality, Qinshan people issued "stop work order" to the general contractor without mercy. Qinshan's image as a "strong owner" has left a deep impression on foreign suppliers, which has won the admiration of foreign partners and is known as "the success story of the Chinese people"

with the smooth operation of unit 3 of Fangjiashan nuclear power project on February 12, 2015, all 9 units of Qinshan nuclear power were completed and put into operation. Qinshan nuclear power base has a total installed capacity of 6.564 million KW and an annual generating capacity of about 50billion kwh, accounting for about 15% of the annual power consumption in Zhejiang Province. It has become a nuclear power base with the largest number of nuclear power units, the richest reactor types and the largest installed capacity in the world that will enhance the company's sales and profits in the country and even in the whole world for a long time

On december31,1991, only 15 days after the 300000 kW unit of Qinshan Phase I was realized and generated power, China signed a contract with Pakistan to build two 300000 kW units of the same reactor type

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