The hottest 40 years of reform and opening up - Ch

2022-07-29
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China's nuclear fuel industry started in the 1950s, and this year marks the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the first batch of nuclear fuel plants in China. Over the past 60 years, the nuclear fuel industry has gone through an extraordinary road of development, especially in the 40 years of reform and opening up, China's nuclear fuel industry has undergone tremendous changes. In order to reflect the changes in the past 40 years, we interviewed the main leaders of China Atomic Energy Industry Co., Ltd., which is currently responsible for the development of the nuclear fuel industry

"the nuclear fuel industry is a strategic high-tech industry, which has made important contributions to China's national defense and economic construction in the past 40 years. Its future development will play an important role in China's realization of the two Centennial goals. We are confident that China's nuclear fuel industry will be developed well." Liu Chun, chairman of the board of directors and Secretary of the Party committee of the atomic energy company, said that if the microcomputer function is better, the above is the relevant introduction of the functional characteristics of the hydraulic universal testing machine for casting aluminum alloy

"the nuclear fuel industry is the foundation for the development of nuclear military industry and nuclear energy, and it is the core industry of CNNC. In the 40 years of reform and opening up, the development of nuclear fuel has experienced a trough and pain, but it has also ushered in opportunities, realized development transformation, broken through key technologies, formed a new industrial system, and achieved rapid development. We have basically become bigger and are moving forward to become stronger and better." Luochangsen, general manager of the atomic energy company, said

the pains of industrial adjustment in the early stage of reform and opening up

in the early stage of reform and opening up, the state made substantial adjustments to the national economy, especially the national defense industry. As an important part of China's national defense industry, the nuclear fuel industry has been greatly adjusted. By the middle and late 1980s, the military tasks of the nuclear fuel system had been drastically reduced, some important nuclear facilities had been shut down, and some projects under construction had been suspended. The whole system had experienced unimaginable pains

"For the sudden adjustment, we were not prepared and lacked systematic planning. We mainly relied on the development of civilian products by various factories and institutes to maintain the team. The 404 factory engaged in titanium dioxide and citric acid, the 821 factory engaged in electrolytic aluminum, the 812 factory engaged in Baijiu, silk and elevator, the 202 factory engaged in magnesium, calcium, alkali and shoes, the 504 factory engaged in ferrosilicon, ice cream and corrugated paper, the 405 factory engaged in shampoo and yellow rice wine, and the isotope separation research institute engaged in grain processing Equipment, reducer, even solid paste... As for the total number of products, it is really difficult to count. In fact, it was self-help that kept the core talents, the team and the root of development. " Luochangsen recalled

"the civilian products developed in that period had low technical content. Coupled with the long-term military plan management thinking and mode, it was difficult to adapt to the market economy, and the project benefits were not good. Later, most of them did not survive and were eliminated by the market." Luo Changsen's words have deep feelings

"That was the most difficult period for the nuclear fuel system. The main nuclear fuel plants were concentrated in remote areas in the southwest and northwest. Some plants were located in Gobi desert and high mountains, and their living conditions were very poor. In the early days of reform and opening up, as units within the old military industry system, they had a heavy historical burden, a large number of redundant personnel, and the life of employees was very difficult. For several years, the 202 plant reduced their wages because of difficulties in enterprise operation. The leaders of the plant paid 220 yuan a month, and the employees paid 220 yuan a month 180 yuan. It's really better to sell tea eggs than to engage in atomic bombs. However, despite the difficulties, the fine tradition of nuclear fuel's tenacious struggle has not been lost. The nuclear industry spirit of "four everything" has always been engraved in the bones of nuclear fuel people. With this spirit, we have survived a period that was more difficult and complicated than the three-year difficult period, maintained a complete technology and production system, maintained a continuous technological line, and maintained a core talent team, This saved the development gene and the development spark for the later development of the nuclear fuel industry. " Luo Changsen said solemnly and firmly to Ji 101 concrete interface treatment agent

"The party and the country have not forgotten the contributions made by nuclear fuel to the country. In order to solve the difficulties of the employees of the 404 plant and the 821 plant, the State Council made a special study on the problems of the two plants and formulated special policies to solve the difficulties of the employees. The employees of the 404 plant moved from the old base to Jiayuguan, and the employees of the 821 plant moved from the old base to Guangyuan City. The lives of the employees have been fundamentally improved. The nuclear fuel people thank the party and the country for their care, and And strive to make new contributions to national development. " Luo said

nuclear power development drives the development of nuclear fuel industry

40 years of reform and opening up, China's national economic development, energy development and energy structure adjustment have promoted the development of nuclear power industry. From the independent design and construction of Qinshan Phase I and phase II nuclear power plants, to the introduction of French technology for the construction of Daya Bay and Ling'ao nuclear power plants, the introduction of Russian technology for the construction of Tianwan nuclear power plants, the introduction of Canadian technology for the construction of Qinshan Phase III nuclear power plants, the introduction of American technology for the construction of Sanmen and Haiyang nuclear power plants, and the construction of the independently developed "hualong-1" nuclear power plant, China's nuclear power industry has developed rapidly. At present, 41 nuclear power units have been put into operation in China, and the number of nuclear power units under construction ranks first in the world

"nuclear power is developing, and the supply of nuclear fuel must be based at home, which brings great opportunities for the development of nuclear fuel. Building a new nuclear fuel industry system that meets the needs of the common development of civil and national defense was the only way out for the nuclear fuel industry to get rid of difficulties and rebirth at that time, and it was also the history of nuclear fuel people." Luo said

since the development of supporting nuclear power in the late 1990s, the nuclear fuel industry has walked out of the dilemma, achieved rapid development, realized the transformation from purely serving the nuclear military industry to military civilian integrated development, gradually established a more advanced industrial system, and consolidated its important strategic position in national defense and economic development. Over the past 20 years, the production capacity of uranium conversion, uranium enrichment and fuel components has been greatly increased, the economy has achieved rapid growth and the benefits have been greatly improved; Many industrial links have achieved technological breakthroughs through scientific and technological innovation, and some are in the forefront of the world; The industry has achieved "downsizing", and the total number of employees has decreased from nearly 70000 at the peak to 24000 at present; Employees' lives have also been fundamentally improved. Over the past 20 years, the nuclear fuel system has provided high-quality products and services for nuclear power plants, and has been highly praised by nuclear power users

"the development of nuclear power drives the development of the nuclear fuel industry. At the same time, the nuclear fuel industry is also an important guarantee and support for the development of nuclear power. If China does not have the support of its own nuclear fuel industry system, nuclear power will use thin film transistors (TFTs) The development led by the polarizing film brightening film project and the LCD backlight film group brightening module project will not have today's scale. In the future, the development of domestic nuclear power, especially nuclear power 'going global', will be inseparable from the support of nuclear fuel. " Luo said

since the reform and opening up, the nuclear fuel industry has made comprehensive progress.

when it comes to the changes and achievements of the reform and opening up over the years, Luo Changsen talks about them like a treasure

"First, on the basis of adhering to the spirit of the 'four everything', we have established a market-oriented and international development concept, organically integrating the supremacy of national interests with the supremacy of users. Nuclear fuel has changed from the traditional management mode of a single military product and a planned economy to a military civilian integrated development, integrated into social development, established a business model of a market economy, established the concept of openness, competition, customers and service, and is market-oriented Industrial awareness has been strengthened, which is the biggest change in the ideology of nuclear fuel people

"second, we have formed a new, market-oriented and international industrial system for national defense and economic construction, including a production capacity system, a scientific and technological innovation system, a talent system, an integrated international and domestic business system, etc. facing the market, we are a systematic operation, which is our greatest advantage.

"Third, a number of young and middle-aged core talents have emerged. In the past, the key to our success in establishing a nuclear fuel system was to have a group of outstanding talents. The older generation of nuclear scientists played a key role, such as Zhang Peilin, Cao Benxi, Wang Chengshu, etc. over the years, we have paid attention to talent training, and a number of outstanding talents have emerged. Outstanding talents are our core resources and the key to ensuring follow-up development.

"Fourth, we have formed a new development model. First, we have innovated the capacity-building and distribution model, and put forward a new model of 'two approaches' and integrated development. We have built a new nuclear fuel base integrating transformation, enrichment and fuel components, and formed a nuclear fuel supply guarantee chain in which the old base and the new base coexist, complement and coexist. We are close to both nuclear power users and raw material supply (imported from overseas) Actively adapt to the requirements of China's nuclear power development, and better promote the international cooperation and "going global" of nuclear fuel, so as to open up the international market. Second, innovate the business model, give full play to the advantages of the system, and vigorously promote the integrated product and service supply model in the domestic and international markets

"fifth, technological breakthroughs have been achieved through independent innovation. Nuclear fuel is a high-tech industry, and some of its technologies are extremely sensitive technologies that can not be bought. We must rely on ourselves! This year's China US trade war has highlighted the importance of mastering core technologies. Over the years, we have consistently adhered to independent innovation, and core technologies in all links have made great progress or even breakthroughs, realizing leapfrog development."

technological breakthrough through independent innovation is the biggest highlight.

"great achievements have been made in all aspects of the development of nuclear fuel in recent years. I think the biggest highlight is technological breakthrough through independent innovation." Luo said

"in the process of uranium conversion, we have successfully developed key equipment, realized the integration of purification and conversion, and greatly improved the control technology, safety and environmental protection level.

"Uranium enrichment technology is the most critical and core technology in the nuclear fuel industry system. It is also one of the most sensitive technologies. It is considered to be an important symbol of a country's nuclear technology level and a core secret under strict control by all nuclear powers. After years of joint research, we have successfully overcome a number of key technologies in the development of centrifuges, realized the independent and industrialized application of centrifuges, and achieved international advanced technical indicators At present, it has formed a complete uranium enrichment industrial system of centrifuge R & D and manufacturing, centrifugal engineering design, construction and production and operation, which is of great strategic significance to ensure national energy security and the sustainable development of China's nuclear power. This year, the large-scale commercial demonstration project of a new generation of uranium enrichment centrifuges has been fully completed, which marks the upgrading of domestic uranium enrichment centrifuges, the further improvement of their technical level and economy, and the achievement of the international advanced level. In the world, Urenco joint venture in Western Europe (a joint venture between Britain, Germany and the Netherlands) and Rosatom in Russia have truly realized the industrialized production and application of centrifuges. China is the third in the world. China can compete with the two world's top uranium enrichment companies on the same stage. We can proudly say that we are leading together with Urenco and Rosatom

"in terms of fuel elements, we have mastered the manufacturing technology of various domestic reactor type fuel elements. As China has introduced a variety of foreign reactor type technologies in the development of nuclear power, it has also introduced fuel assembly manufacturing technology along with nuclear power technology. Over the years, we have introduced and digested

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